Week 12 Practical arts of editing and post production Submission

Curtis Wortley 1415500

Final Pieces

Fairly Legal: 

With my fairly legal I feel that it was my strongest edit because I felt that I managed to cut most of the mistakes out and allow there to be a better flow in the footage. I start the scene set as a wide shot because I want the audience to know where they are and what is happening. We then start to get closer to the women and the man talking. With this I used the 180 degree rule, keeping the camera on one side so that it dosnt break the illusion for the audience who are watching it, if it was broken then it will confuse the audience because they will think that they have moved to quickly and wouldn’t know where they are watching it from in the room. I did close up shots of their faces when reacting to response’s this allows the audience to try and figure out what sort of person they are and gives a greater interest to want to know more. I did a mixture of split edits so that you could see the reactions even know the other person was talking. I then made the audio flow more so that the sound didn’t increase or go to quiet. There were a few cuts I did from the start and at the end. From the start the man is already talking about something else and we don’t know what he is on about, which was a part we didn’t need. Then next at the end there was a camera man shadow on the door so I changed the angle so that the viewers couldn’t see the mistake. When the scene starts of the man drops documents onto the table for the women and then picks them up, I needed to make it so that when I changed the angle the documents fell at the same time to the next angle and that the audio was synced with the documents landing on the table. Which I also did with when the women picks the documents up and when the man sits down onto his chair.

Delicious Piece: 

Delicious piece started of with having a mixture of video footage and audio that I had to use to create a shortened down video by editing the materials that I was given. This meant that I could choose where I wanted to different cuts to be so that I could give it a structure and keep the audiences attention. So I started of by separating the media and moving them about so that I could find a interesting visual look to my work. I then began to try and structure the documentary, so that we knew what was going on in the footage. I did cuts on the audio and footage because there were quality faults and audio errors. So I turned some of it into split edits to cover up the mistakes. Allowing me to have a greater control with how long the piece needs to be. I made it so that there was music at the start middle and end so that it keeps the audience interested. Allowing contrast with the documentary. For example in the middle there is someone talking then I split cut and fade into drums being played this will keep the viewers awake and want to know what else is happening. The slit cuts when someone is talking and it shows something else at the same time allows the viewers to think about both things and allows there to be a shorter film. I also added some symbolism in my footage, when the women is talking she mentions the word greetings which we then see footage of people shaking hands, the next one was when she says the word together and split cut to a classroom of kids sitting together. Then finally there is a part where the narrator says that we often don’t think about the farmers who provide us with the products and it cuts to the farmers at work with music of farmers and their kids singing together.

Creative Piece: 

With my creative piece, I wanted to start it last from all my other edits because I wanted to understand editing more before I did a project where I had to gather my own audio and footage for my work. I went onto archive.org (https://archive.org/details/movies) which is a website that allows you to download video and audio from a range of categories. After browsing through some footage I decided I wanted to do my creative piece around horror but I wanted to give a advert the theme. Which lead me to try and merge an advert and a horror film. Night of the living dead (https://archive.org/details/night_of_the_living_dead) was the film I wanted to use because I found a scene near the start of the film which I thought would be a good spot to merge my footage together. The advert I used was about a product called fresh which is a deodorant for women. (https://archive.org/details/1962CommercialForFreshDeodorant) I thought that the advert had a creepy side to it which will go well with my theme of horror. The audio I used was from both of those videos and another video which has no footage being used in my creative piece, this video had useful music in that I thought would work for my creative piece.

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Week 11 Post production:

Editing Techniques

Contrast- Is when you cut between scenes which have contrast from each other, one scene could be really calm and relaxing then the other scene could show someone being killed like in the film the godfather.

Parallelism- Is the technique where you merge two scenes that happen simultaneously but in a different location to each other. The way it connects if that in one scene there is something happening then we switch to the other scene which references what has just happened in the last scene but now we are in a new location. We see this happen in the film Jurassic park the lost world. Where we find a women screaming on a island then the scene switches to us showing a man standing next to a sign that has a picture of an island. With the scream merging with the train that is passing by because the man is in a train station catching a train. The scenes merge together from one scene being on an island and the other being in a train station.

Symbolism- Is when you move from the main scene onto a different scene that has a symbolic connection to the audience that they can relate to. It is when the story explains itself with its edits.

Simultaneity- This is when you cut between two scenes that happening at the same time this builds up suspense for the audience. Allowing the atmosphere for the film to build up.

Leit Motiff- This is where we hear a theme from something making us know what is going to happen. For example in Star wars we hear the Imperials march theme leading us to know that Darth Vader is approaching. It references Darth Vader so that the audience know what is happening. We also see it in the film jaws when we hear the shark noise we know that jaws is coming to attack someone.

Concept of elliptical editing

To condense time and prevent the audience from seeing something unimportant. It holds information to make people think about what they are watching. This allows the audience to figure out for them self’s by looking for clues but not fully knowing all the details.

Delicious Piece

This is my second edit for my delicious piece. I learnt from my feedback that in some footage that i have used the quality was great and also I learnt that the audio wasn’t fluent through the video.

This is my updated version of my delicious piece, using the feedback I’ve had ive made it smaller and picked better shots. Also ive added more audio and made it so that we know what is happening better. There are a few effects I’ve added into it aswell.

Fairly Legal

I also had feedback on my fairly legal piece, I learnt that some of the sound was out of place for when they were speaking. Also there were movement and angle mistakes. From this I then updated my work as seen from the video below.

Creative Piece

My creative piece is a merge between a horror and an advert. I thought this would work nicely because I wanted to make it so that the product was scary and that the women from the ‘night of the living dead’ was running away from the product fresh instead of the zombie chasing her. There are parts where looks out of the window and she can see the product being advertise to her and then when she goes onto the phone for help the fresh women responds to her. This changed the story into a scary product advertisement instead of them being a separate horror film and a separate calm advertisement.

Week 10: Post production

Firstly in this session we looked at the types of edits that are used.

Types of edits

Straight cut: Is a common cut which is used to make a simple cut to the next scene.

Contrast cut: This cut is used when you could be in a nice calm relaxing scene then suddenly you want to jump into a loud dramatic scene. You would use a contrast cut because the scenes are the opposite of each other but you want them to link together.

Match cut Is used when you join two parts from your footage together, but only with similar shots. This allows you to change the angle of the shot and hide that fact that the camera has cut to a new place. With the shots being so similar it would be difficult to notice such a sudden change.

L/J Edits: This edits allow you to cut out parts of footage but keep the audio playing so that you could have other footage playing instead. This allows you to have a different approach to making your film flow better. It also makes the viewers think more because they were just thinking about the last thing they saw then you switch to another footage suddenly.

Parallel cuts: This is a edit that is used when you’d try trick the audience into thinking that something is further away then it actually is. For example when someone is shooting someone in a scene you only see them with close shots behind cover shooting at someone in the distance but in reality they could be shooting each other but right next to each other during when it was filmed. We see this example in the film Naked Gun 2 1/2 where it shows the close up shots of them shooting each other but they look like they are far apart, then we get a wide shot camera angle and we can see that they are next to each other. 

Jump cuts: Is a cut when their is a continuity error, where something was misplaced or not in the right position.

Wipe cut

This is an example in star wars 3 showing the change of scene using the wipe edit.

Fading and dissolving

With fading it allows the editor to change the time of the scenes or change the location of the scene this shows a gap in time and isn’t used much for a continuation of a scene.

Morphing

At the end of saving private Ryan we see a morph edit being used showing private Ryan changing age in a short amount of time. This effect shows that many years has past since where we last saw him which was on the battlefield. When we see him as an older person we find that he has had a family since the war and visits his friends that had died during the war.

Satoshi Kon

Satoshi Kon was an animator and editor. He had created unique styles of editing shown in his animations such as this one. He uses a short amount of frames in certain segments which increase the speed of the videos because he felt that the audience only really needed to see a little bit of something this allowed the audience to be able to figure out for themselves what has just happened. Also when he edited out scenes he made them so that they merged together showing a resemblance of the scene even though what is going on in the background might not be linked with the setting of the last scene.

Cutting and angle

Cutting is often used to change the angle of a characters action it is also used for matching the cuts using the same speed, direction or momentum. The frames cant be repeated because the flow of the movement wouldn’t workout.

In the video you can see lots of cutting angles that have been used. There is a flow of movement and small mistakes in the editing but it isn’t noticeable when watching it as a film. This is because sometimes editors try and hide mistake if they cant do anything else about it, so they would often cut when you as an audience is distracted by a certain movement.

Fairly Legal project

I gained feedback on my fairly legal piece, i learnt that the audio didnt flow correctly and that there shouldnt be a wide shot during the middle of the sequence. So i decided to improve my fairly legal piece ready for next week.

I also started my delicious piece project, i started it of by separating all the footage and sound so that i could see where i could fit them together but also allow it all to make sense and flow.

Week 9

Grammar of edit book

These are points that have found in the grammar of edit book that we were asked to look at about editing. To allow us to gain a better understanding of the work.

Framing and composition

An editor, may be called upon to reformat the video frame, or perform a pan and scan, where you take a wide screen camera original format and extract a smaller frame size from it while simultaneously panning left and right to maintain some semblance of good composition in the new, smaller image.

Screen direction

Subject movement out of the frame of one shot and into the frame of another shot must maintain consistent screen direction. Also frame left is screen left and frame right is screen right when watching the images. The world where the characters live and move must be connected with the same as how it is in the real world with things being used in the same format of them being left and right.

Complex shots

-Lens movement

-Camera movement

-No mount movement

-Simple subject movement

A complex shot may contain a:

-Pan

-Tilt

-Pan and tilt (diagonal upward or downward camera lens movement)

-Lens movement (zoom or a focus pull)

-Lens movement and a pan (hiding a zoom by panning the camera)

-Lens movement and a tilt (hiding the zoom by tilting the camera)

-Subject movement and a pan

-Subject movement and a tilt

Developing a shots

-Lens movement

-Camera movement

-Mounting movement

-More complex subject movement

A developing shot incorporates all four elements of movement

Focus

Production team will often shoot multiple takes of a line reading or an action to ensure that they have the focus correct, so you should not have to worry too much with that material. This is so that if there is one bad shot in the scene there will be back ups so that the bad shot dosnt ruin the rest of the scenes.

Audio Quality

Must be of good quality to use it in the final audio mix. Strong synchronised sound leads to a better footage, linking the sound with the image.

Exposure and colour temperature

Audiences struggle with imagery that is either too bright or too dark, and they don’t like it if something is out of place with colour where they is no reason for the object of person to be a different colour. Good quality footage wont be too dark and too light, it needs to be somewhere in the middle so that the audience can see what is going on clearly without having any disruptions.

180 degree rule

Is the rule where everything must stay on one side when recording, this allows there to be less jumps when switching angles, giving off a stronger illusion, if this rule is broke then it can lead to confusing the audience because they will feel lost on knowing where they are when watching the scene.

30 Degree rule

This rule follows the 180 degree rule and stops jumps in between camera angles when using the 180 degree rule. When your angles are moving you should make sure that it moves to a 30 degree angle so that there isn’t as much of a jump. If it does jump this is known as a jump shot.

Continuity of dialogue

This is how the person was talking in the last shot and you need it to be a continuation with how loud the person was speaking. Also it is about how the person dosnt repeat himself onto the next shot.

Performance

Is how well the actors have performed if they have performed bad on some shots its the editors job to use the stronger shots, this keeps the flow of the scene because a bad performance can ruin the atmosphere of the story.

Be familiar with the footage

Reviewing and assessing the footage for quality issues and gauging usability at the very beginning of the editing process which allows it to serve a two-fold purpose

Week 8: Post production

This session we looked things to consider in scenes when editing my fairly legal project and delicious peace documentary.

Audio Quality: Audio quality, is the sound quality that is used in the video. Having a strong quality audio can help make a video more appealing to the audience who are watching the footage.

Colour temperature: This is so that the colour and lighting in the scenes are fitting with each other and don’t distract the audience as much.

Screen direction: Using the degree rules in the footage so that it dosnt make the audience lost when watching it. Make sure that it flows and keeps a decent distance from each shot.

Performance: Making sure the performance of acting in the scenes flows and works because if a bit of the acting is bad it can ruin the rest of the scene.

Continuity of dialogue and action: This is so that you don’t see footage duplicating or things changing in different shots that are taken in one scene. Such as if you see someone shut a door then the camera angle changes and then they shut the door again. This will confuse the audience and ruin the illusion.

Angles: Camera angles are important in footage because it keeps the viewers interested in what they are watching. Changing the camera angle keeps the flow of the footage and allows a better understanding on what is going on in the scenes. Having the camera angle at eye level gives the illusion that you are there which helps the brain process what they are saying better because it tricks you into believing they are talking to you directly.

Focus: Having the camera in focus on the footage giving a clear view on what is going on.

Week 7: Post Production

This session we went trough the brief for the module Practical arts of editing and post production. Reflection on editing theory on our blogs. A personal creative project 1-2 minutes long, which is a film that I have contributed in some way and edited it. We are also aloud to find video’s from archive.org for material use. Fairly legal witch is a scene that we will have to edit, showing different camera shots and keeping the scene understandable and more attractive to watch. Then delicious piece which is a 2 minute’s film that shows the process of coffee production, that shows farmers coming together to produce this. For both Fairly legal and Delicious piece we were given lots of footage for us to use and edit onto premier pro for our projects.

Next we went onto finding out about the book Grammar of editing by Roy Thompson, which is all about how to edit and how to make the right decisions when editing. I will be reading this and writing up useful information that I have found that could help me on my project.

Our tutor started explaining the rules about editing, with how that humans attention can last up to at least 7 seconds meaning that you’d have to change the camera angle to keep them interested with what is going on. I found out that style is a substance when dealing with a visual medium which is a reason to cut. You want to see the person talking, so you get the feel that you are there, if the audience does not feel this the illusion for the film will be ruined and the audience wouldn’t want to carry on watching. We then moved on to look at shot composition which is important in editing.

-Cutting to an acceptable composition

-Use the best material at the right moments

-Bad composition can confuse the audience

-Make sure the camera footage is professional and not jolting.

I then learnt about the different camera shot types there are, which can add power and allow the audience to see the actors reaction. Seeing the reaction on someone will allow the audience to understand how they are feeling, and seeing how much power someone has enables to audience to learn more things about the story, which allows them to gain a stronger knowledge on what is going on in the footage.

Types of Camera Shots

Extreme close up shot: Getting a closer shot can see fear and other emotions that the audience will be able to see

Big Close up: See’s the reaction on someone’s face, seeing how they are feeling

Close up: A close up can be for a quick reaction

Middle Close: See a reaction and also allows us to see anything else on the footage

Medium Shot: Allows us to see who is talking and where things are in the scene

Mid Long Shot: Seeing multiple objects or people

Long Shot: Seeing what is around the people and seeing if anything they don’t expect

Very Long Shot: Seeing what is happening else where in the scene

Extreme Long Shot: Seeing around a large area to understand where the scene is

Mid 2 Shot: Seeing what someone is doing

Over Shoulder shot: Getting a feel that you are there and can create the sense that someone is talking to you

Things to consider while editing

Sound: it allows about understanding people it keeps people’s attention because sound processes better to the human brain than an image, because you can understand what is going on with sound other than images just showing movement. You can hear a conversation and know what is happening where as image will just allow you just to see people talking.

Keep simple sounds, don’t want it to over work people and confuse the audience.

Robert Bresson

Was a French film director who died in 1999. He was known for his work on film’s. His work could be identified by the use of sound that he had delivered through his work, it was his style and way of working that captured people’s attention through the work he had done in films. Alot of people referred him to be as one for the greatest film-makers. He believed that the use of sound was more important then the sight of images. “The eye solicited alone makes the ear impatient, the ear solicited alone makes the eye impatient. Use these impatiences. Power of the cinematographer who appeals to the two senses in a governable way. Against the tactics of speed, of noise, set tactics of slowness, of silence.” Quote: Robert Bresson.

Camera Angle

180 degree rule: this rule is all about where the audience is and what they can see. !80The line of vision is the limit on where the angles should be when filming because if you were to go past the line and record on the other side aswell it will confuse the audience and break the illusion of them knowing that it is just acting and that is just made up. Some film maker’s do break this rule but the way they do it can add a different positive effect to the story.
45 degree rule: It stops the angle changing to far and making it look more professional, adding a more realism approach for the viewers. So that the audience know where they are through out the film. Making the film more believable, to allow concentration.

Content: Dont allow objects to move places and make sure clothes are the same when changing angle cuts. So that it is consistent throughout to make it look like nothing has happened. A good editor makes sure that this is done properly.

Movement: Camera shot must stay following movement so it doesn’t look like it isn’t changing direction.

Position: Where everything is placed.

Sound: Sound carries different meaning if it is louder or quieter on camera shots. This can add the effect of power or weakness.

Premier pro

We then moved onto looking at premier pro, for our fairly legal work. We learnt the different windows and how to import different media into the windows on premier pro. On the key board we could use the keys J for rewinding K for pausing L for fast forwarding and space for playing.

I started to edit my Fairly legal footage, I wanted to use all the camera shots that we were given and make it so that you could see who was talking and to see there facial reactions. I also made sure that every 1-7 seconds that the angle had changed so it kept the viewers attention.

Fairly Legal so far: 

With this I found that I was cutting to much and changing the angle to dramatically. I need to calm the footage down so that it had a better flow and that the audience know where they are viewing the scene so I doesn’t ruin the illusion.

Week 3: Post production

For this session we were told to produce a film which was about a bag being stolen in some way. We got into groups and split up in different locations. The silent movie needed to be about 1-2 mins long. So we started off filming a few scenes downstairs, we wanted it to be that someone robs a persons bag then someone robs the bag off him. But when the person finds out that there bag is missing they figure out who it was and chase them down. We took it in turns to film and record at different angles so that we all could get use to filming in different ways. Once we had recorded we found out we only did a short amount of footage so we decided to carry on filming next week. Once we had collected the footage we all had to edit it all in our own way so that it would be different for each of us and also so we could practice editing on Adobe premier pro. Features such as cutting, fading and adding titles to the silent movie.